The History of St. Anne’s
The St. Anne’s Compass Rose adorns the top of the church steeple and signifies the universal call of the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the mission of St. Anne’s Parish to our entire city and county.
- Who Was St. Anne?
- Early History
- First St. Anne's Church - 1704-1775
- Second St. Anne's Church - 1792-1858
- Third and Present St. Anne's - Built 1858-1859
- History of the Cemetery
Anne is by legend the grandmother of Jesus Christ, the mother of the Virgin Mary. The story bears similarities to other Biblical miraculous births such as that of Samuel. Childless until advanced in years, Anne is said to have prayed for a child and pledged to the Lord that her child would serve Him. With the birth of Mary, blessed as God’s servant, Anne was rewarded. Her daughter was destined to serve God in the most important role to humankind, the mother of his son, our Savior Jesus Christ.
The Tiffany window in the south wall of the church depicts Anne instructing Mary at her knee. The window was donated by Mrs. W. P. Clason and was secured by the church after being displayed at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
The Tiffany window in the south wall of the church depicts Anne instructing Mary at her knee. The window was donated by Mrs. W. P. Clason and was secured by the church after being displayed at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
Even though the Act of Establishment was passed by the General Assembly in 1692, the King in Council disallowed it. Fears of oppression of Quakers and other Protestant sects contibuted to this decision. In its struggle against Roman Catholicism, the Crown wanted as many happy non-Catholics as possible. Subsequent Acts passed by the Assembly in 1695 and 1696 were also rejected.
When Queen Anne became monarch in 1702, she signed the Act. There were included in this Act provisions for religious toleration for the above-mentioned groups. They were allowed to have their own places o worship as long as they paid their poll tax of 40 pounds of tobacco per person. Roman Catholics were merely “allowed” to pay the tax.
Communications being what they were at the time (a letter and its reply could take six to eight months to traverse the Atlantic), Governor Nicholson and the General Assembly implemented the Act of 1692 immediately. Provisions were made to begin construction of the State House, King William’s School and the first Saint Anne’s Church. The population of Annapolis at the time being quite small, the undertaking of three major projects at one time severely taxed the available work force as well as the funds to complete all three in a timely manner.
The first appropriations for St. Anne’s were allocated in 1695 and 1696. The Governor set about to hire workmen. The first contractor was Edward Dorsey, but he was fired in 1699 and fined 200 pounds for negligence. This was due to his failure to procure materials and hire workmen.
In 1699, the Assembly specified that the dimensions of the Church were to be 65 feet long, 30 feet wide with a porch and a tower in which to hang a bell. But no progress was made. The following year the Assembly put the appropriated funds into escrow.
In the ensuing four years, although changes were made, the church was finally finished. As a sidelight, the first St. Anne’s front door faced east, toward the State House. By contemporary accounts, St. Anne’s was the only brick church in Maryland (at least until 1708).
Over the succeeding years, interior galleries were added, additional pews (paid for by subscription and useable only by the owner) were installed, and an organ and choir loft were constructed.
However, writers of the time likened St. Anne’s more to a barn than to a house of worship. The haphazardness of these renovations eventually took their toll on the building. In 1775, the congregation petitioned the General Assembly for funds for a new church. In the spring of 1775, the first St. Anne’s Church was razed.
None of our Founding Fathers worshipped in a true St. Anne’s Church during the American Revolution. The congregation worshipped in a theatre on West Street and various other venus until the second St. Anne’s was constructed in 1793. The church site on Church Circle was merely a stockpile of bricks and other materials for the duration of the Revolution and for many years thereafter. The conflict and the accompanying shortage of funds both contributed to no church standing on the site for 18 years.
The first St. Anne’s Church was built between 1696 and 1704, the delay having been caused by the Anglo-French wars and a shortage of materials and competent bricklayers. When completed, it served as the Chapel Royal for Maryland until 1715, when the province was returned to Lord Baltimore. Thereafter until the Revolution, it was the Proprietary Chapel of Maryland as well as the Church of Middle Neck Parish.
Annapolitians from all walks of life regularly resorted to it for the Sacraments of Font and Altar, to worship in the great spiritual tradition of the Book of Common Prayer, and to receive instruction in Christian doctrine and morals from priests who had been ordained by bishops of the Church of England, licensed by the Bishop of London, and instituted into the parish by the Lord of Proprietor or his representative, the Governor of Maryland. Except for the private chapel in the home of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, where the Roman Catholics worshipped, St. Anne’s was the only church in colonial Annapolis.
The Maryland General Assembly contributed to the cost of building the first St. Anne’s Church in return for official pews being set aside for use of the Governor and legislators. King William III (1689-1701) sent over a handsome set of Communion Silver made in 1696 and engraved with his royal arms for use in his Chapel Royal in Annapolis, and it is still in use every Sunday. Later, Queen Anne (1701-1714) gave a bell which called parishioners to worship until it was destroyed in the fire of 1858.
In addition to the King William silver, St. Anne’s is fortunate enough to have parish records dating from 1705 from Major General Hammond, whose tombstone is still in the churchyard, and a large Prayer Book purchased in 1764 and used until about 1805, with a prayer for the President of the United States written in ink to replace the printed one for King George III.
Being the only church in Annapolis before the Revolution, St. Anne’s was so well attended that additional galleries were added from time to time. Even so, the town grew faster than these makeshift attempts to increase the seating capacity, and in 1775 the first St. Anne’s Church was pulled down to make room for a new larger one designed by Joseph Horatio Anderson, who was the architect of the present State House, which was begun in 1772. The timing proved to be unfortunate, as the Revolution broke out that year and the bricks and timber that had been stockpiled for the new church were commandeered by the Committee of Safety of the provisional government and used to build forts at the mouth of the Severn River to defend the city against attacks by the enemy. During the war years, the parishioners of St. Anne’s worshipped in King William’s School on State Circle and, when that proved inadequate, in the new theater that had been built on West Street just before the war.
After the ratification of the Treaty of Paris by the Continental Congress meeting in State House in Annapolis in 1784, by which time American independence was acknowledged by Great Britain, the thirteen states were plunged into severe economic depression caused by the burden of heavy war debts and the dislocation of accustomed trading patterns. Hence, the building of the new church was further delayed. In due course, however, the new church arose and was consecrated in 1792 by the first Bishop of Maryland, Thomas John Claggett, who had been a curate in the old church. The second St. Anne’s Church was larger and architecturally more sophisticated than its rather plain predecessor.
On St. Valentine’s Day in 1858, a fire gutted the interior of the church and Queen Anne’s bell perished in the conflagration. Fortunately, the old Communion silver, Bible and Prayer Book were rescued from the flames.
Church records before 1704 were burned in a fire at the State House, so the precise date of the completion of the first church is unknown. It was built, however, at the same time as the State House and King William’s School (now St. John’s College).
By the 1770’s the building was showing its age. The vestry appealed to the General Assembly for aid and received funds for a new church. Shortly after, the building was demolished. The Revolutionary War intervened and delayed construction for more than 15 years. During the interim, the parishioners worshipped at a brick theatre on West Street. Vestry members of the period included Samuel Chase and William Paca, both signers of the Declaration of Independence. Another notable worshipper at St. Anne’s was Francis Scott Key, who attended while a student at St. John’s College. The second St. Anne’s, completed in 1792, served the parish until a furnace fire gutted the interior on Valentine’s Day, 1858.
The present church, which rose like a phoenix from the ashes of the second St. Anne’s Church, was built immediately after the fire of 1858 in the Romanesque Revival style and incorporated a portion of the old tower. The church was completed in 1859, except for the present steeple which was delayed by the Civil War and not completed until 1866. At the request of the City of Annapolis, the Town Clock has been housed in the tower since that time.
The stone Altar and Font were carved by the Maryland sculptor, William Henry Rinehart (1825-1874). The walnut pulpit, pews, and bishop’s chair were made for the new church in 1859. The brass eagle lectern is in memory of Captain James Wadell (1824-1886), who as commander of the Confederate Raider “Shenandoah”, is said to have sunk or captured more American ships than anyone else in history. The walnut reredos depicting the Risen Christ offering the Book of Life to humankind was made in 1920 by the Oberammergau woodcarver, William Kirchmayer. Some of the stained glass windows are notable as well. The third one on the south side, depicting St. Anne instructing her young daughter, the Blessed Virgin Mary, was made by the Tiffany Studios and exhibited at the Colombian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 before being put in the church. The new organ in the rear gallery was built by the Freiburger Orgelbau and installed in 1975.
Under the planning of Governor Francis Nicholson St. Anne’s church was placed on the second highest piece of land in Annapolis; the highest was reserved for the State House. The burial grounds around the church were at one time much larger than what presently exists. Annapolis’ growth and especially the construction of the street around the circle, have reduced the cemetery to only a representative sample of what existed in the 18th century. It is reported in an early 20th century newspaper article that graves extended all the way to the Post Office and Government House.
The section of the cemetery adjacent to College Creek (formerly called Dorsey Creek) was bequeathed by Miss Elizabeth Bordley in 1790. In 1783 the vestry of St. Anne’s declared that the churchyard cemetery was filled therefore relocation was necessary. Through the years additional lands have been added to the cemetery. The Locust Grove Cemetery was the first addition in 1887. In 1961 the flat ground near the Arundel Center and the Goldstein Treasury Building was deeded to the cemetery by the city. The last addition came in 1990 with the merger of the Cedar Bluff Cemetery at the corner of Northwest and Washington Streets. Cedar Bluff was established in 1896 by a provision of the will of Elizabeth V. Davis.
Among the tombstones in the churchyard are those of five 17th-Century Marylanders: Col. Nicholas Greenberry (1627-1697) acting governor in 1694, and Ann, his wife (1648-1698); Major General John Hammond (1643-1707); Captain John Worthington (1650-1701); and Henry Ridgely (1669-1700). There are also grave stones of the first Mayor of Annapolis, Amos Garrett (1671-1727), and several other colonial worthies, including William Bladen (1670-1718), Benjamin Tasker, Sr. (1691-1768) who was President of the Maryland Council for thirty-two years and acting Governor of Maryland on several occasions; and his son, Benjamin Tasker, Jr. (1721-1760); Margaret Tilghman Carroll (1743-1817); and of the last British Governor of Maryland, Sir Robert Eden (1741-1784), whom George III created “Baronet of Maryland.” Governor Eden returned to Annapolis after the Revolutionary War and died here. He was originally buried at St. Margaret’s Church, but his mortal remains were moved to St. Anne’s churchyard in 1926 by the Society of Colonial Wars who erected the monument.
In recent years the vault of Margaret Tilghman Carroll, daughter of Matthew Tilghman, on the north side of the church was opened and the mortal remains of several members of the Carroll family were identified in addition to her own, including: Dr. Charles Carroll (1691-1755), his second wife Anne Plater Carroll (d. 1766), his younger son John Henry Carroll (1732-1754), his elder son, the eminent constitutional lawyer and patriot, Charles Carroll, the Barrister (1723-1783) and husband of Margaret Tilghman Carroll.
Many other interments are no longer marked by stones, including the Bordley family vault beneath the ground behind the east end of the church. Discovered recently when a hole was dug to plant a tree, the vault was opened and found to contain three coffins, one of which bears a silver plate with the name of Margaret Chew Bordley (died 1773), first wife of John Beale Bordley (1727-1804), the celebrated agriculturist and animal breeder. She was a sister of Molly Chew, the first wife of Governor William Paca (1740-1804). Another coffin contains what is believed to be the remains (with his yellow wig still intact) of the prominent lawyer and bon vivant Stephen Bordley (ca. 1710-1764). The third is believed to be that of his socially accomplished sister, Elizabeth Bordley (1717-1789), who lived with her unmarried brother in the Bordley House and managed his household, famous in its day for its hospitality and cuisine. She is the same Elizabeth Bordley who in 1790 gave the bequest of land on College Creek which since then replaced the churchyard as St. Anne’s Cemetery.
St. Anne’s is also the final resting place for many other of Annapolis’ citizens, both notable and ordinary, all of whom played a role in the history of the City of Annapolis, State of Maryland, and the United States. Among the notable Annapolitans are several people connected with the Hammond-Harwood House. Major John Hammond, great grandfather to Mathias Hammond, whose ancient tombstone was moved to the cemetery and can still be seen there. Mathias Hammond, John Hammond, and Philip Hammond, the first three owners of the house are not buried at St. Anne’s Cemetery, but at Howard’s Addition, located at what is now the Naval Academy Dairy Farm in Gambrills
Although the first Hammonds were not buried at St. Anne’s they none the less all had strong connections with the church and all three men were at some point members of the Vestry.
Monuments to Ninian Pinkney who owned the Hammond-Harwood house from (1810-1811), Judge Jeremiah Townley Chase (1811-1828), Richard Chase (1828-1840), Francis Townley Chase Loockerman (1840-1857), Hester Anne Loockerman Harwood, Matilda L. Blair, and Townley Loockerman (1857-1890), and the last private owners Lucy and Hester Ann Harwood (1890-1924), can all be found in St. Anne’s Cemetery.
Many of the other people who built the great houses of Annapolis are buried here: the Brices, Randalls, Ridouts, Worthingtons, Chases, Ogles, Carrolls, Pinkneys, Greens, Sands, and Shaws are only some of the names that can be found at St. Anne’s Cemetery.
Veterans of all our wars are also buried here. Patriots of the American Revolution, War of 1812, Soldiers and Sailors of both the Union and Confederacy, Spanish American War, and all the wars of the 20th century.
Around 1913 the cemetery was managed by the Ladies Cemetery Association whose president was Mrs. Joseph McComas.
There was also a “Gentleman’s Advisory Board.” It was a time of change, for the “Keeper” of the cemetery had recently died and a new one was hired, financial changes were being made. The cemetery has always been a “City Cemetery” and as such has many graves of local citizens who were not members of St. Anne’s Church. This association began work on improving the cemetery and raising money for the endowment fund. All lot owners at that time were requested to pay an annual fee for the cemetery’s upkeep. Perpetual Care fees did not become a part of the sales price of lots until much later. Most of the older lots in the cemetery still do not have perpetual care paid for them.
The archives at St. Anne’s are located primarily in the Parish House and in the Maryland State Archives. Articles have been written from documents found in the Archive Room in the Parish House, as well as from dated newspaper articles. Some of these articles are available on this website. Questions about the history of St. Anne’s Parish may be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Calling a New Rector
Until quite recently, the process of searching for and calling a new rector took little time. As recently as the 1970’s a new rector was in place with a few weeks. In September 1956, The Reverend Charles Edward Berger announced his resignation as rector of St. Anne’s to accept a position as rector of All Saints’ Church in Chevy Chase, one of the largest Episcopal churches in the United States. The Wardens and Vestry accepted his resignation September 11, also appointing a five-member committee to secure a new rector for the parish. They appointed the then curate, The Reverend Alden Besse, to serve as priest-in-charge until a new rector took office. Dr. Berger stayed at St Anne’s until November 1. The search process took three months. The Reverend James F. Madison accepted in February, and began serving May 1, 1957. He served until late 1973. The search process was again short. The Reverend Richard V. Landis, Mr. Madison’s assistant, became rector in December, 1974, assisted in his first two years by his old boss, Mr. Madison. Mr. Landis served until his retirement in December, 1987. . Only at this point did the search process become much more extended and complex, with the parish doing a self-study. The Reverend Janice Gordon, Associate to Mr. Landis became priest-in-charge, and agreed not to be a candidate for the rectorship. On January 6, 1989, The Reverend John Randolph Price was welcomed to St. Anne’s as rector. He served until June 4, 2006. The Reverend Robert Wickizer was selected as priest-in-charge. However, he resigned before the search process, which extended for nearly three years, was completed, and The Reverend Gid Montjoy, who had been Dr. Price’s associate, became priest-in-charge, serving until The Reverend Amy Richter was called in May 2009.
Carol Hjortsberg, Co-Chair of Archives
In 1836, the long-time sexton of St. Anne’s, Joseph Simmons, died. He was said to be nearly age 100 – maybe even more. For 40 years or more he did maintenance on the church, took care of the grounds, and rang the bells. He did these things very well. But it is grave digging for which he is remembered. In his later years, with long white hair flowing over his shoulders and outmoded dress, this Dickensian character, according to his obituary, “presented to the mind the apparition of Father Time himself, lacking only the emblematic scythe.” His nickname – he did not like it – was “Joe Morgue.” He was known sometimes to hiss at unsuspecting gentlemen, “I’ll have you some day.” He was the city grave-digger for so long that he was probably often right. The best-known Joe Morgue tale concerned one “Jeffrey Jig” an Annapolis resident who lived in a little hut at the foot of Duke of Gloucester Street. Jeffrey was apparently a narcoleptic who would sometimes fall comatose – so much so that funeral preparations were said to have been made several times, but Jeffrey would always wake up. On one occasion, however Jeffrey was placed in a coffin and the coffin in the grave before he awoke. As Joe was throwing dirt on the coffin, pounding was heard. The story goes that Joe continued to fill up the grave, remarking that, “He’s got to die sometime,” and if he was not dead, “ He ought to be.” Joe was restrained, and Jeffrey “lived to die another day.”
The Rector and George Washington
A front page article in the Evening Capital, August 3, 1905 describes the auction of a letter dated July 30, 1770, written by George Washington to his friend, the rector of St. Anne’s Church, Jonathan Boucher. The letter inquires whether Mr. Boucher had received the books Washington had sent to him.
The Reverend Boucher was from Cumberland, England where his father was both an alehouse keeper and a schoolmaster. His parents wished him a scholar’s life. In 1762, he was ordained a priest and licensed for Virginia by the Bishop of London. He then bought a small plantation in Caroline County, VA and established himself as schoolmaster of 30 boys from leading Virginia families. One of his students was John Parke Custis – “Jacky” – the son of Martha Custis Washington. George Washington, who treated his step-children as his own, became friends with Jacky’s schoolmaster.
After operating the school for about eight years, Boucher received letters of introduction from Governor Eden and presented them to the Vestry of St. Anne’s June 12, 1770 where he became rector. He continued his school in the rectory of St. Anne’s, where Washington stayed when he traveled to Annapolis to check on Jacky’s progress.
Though both men had common concern for Jacky and common interests in the theater, their relationship became strained, as Jonathan Boucher was a staunch loyalist. In 1771 Boucher left St. Anne’s for another parish. He ultimately felt forced to flee to England in 1775, the same year Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the colonial army.Boucher did not forget his friendship with the Revolutionary commander however. He later wrote a book entitled “View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution” in which he predicted a future civil war. He dedicated his book to George Washington.
Sources for this article include historical articles from The Capital provided the Archives by Glenn Gibbs and St. Anne’s Annapolis History and Times by William Paynter.
RECTORS OF ST ANNE’S
1696-1698 Peregrine Coney
1699-1703 Edward Topp
1704-1710 James Wootton
1710-1711 Joseph Colbatch, of All Hallows Parish (part-time interim)
1711-1713 Edward Butler
1713-1714 Jacob Henderson, of Queen Anne’s Parish (part-time interim)
1714-1724 Samuel Skippon
1725-1739 John Humphreys
1739-1740 James Stirling
1740-1743 Charles Lake
1744 Samuel Edgar
1745-1749 John Gordon
1749 Andrew Lendrum
1749-1754 Alexander Malcolm
1754 John Myers
1754-1756 John McPherson, officiating
1757-1759 Clement Brooke, officiating
1759-1760 Alexander Williamson
1761-1767 Samuel Keene
1767-1768 Bennett Allen
1768-1770 William Edmiston
1771 Jonathan Boucher
1772-1775 John Montgomery
1775 Thomas Landrum (Lendrum)
1777 Thomas Read
1777-1780 William Hanna, of Westminster Parish (part-time interim)
1781-1785 Thomas Gates
1785-1804 Ralph Higginbotham
1804-1806 William Duke
1806-1807 William Lewis Gibson
1807-1811 Bethel Judd
1812-1816 William Nind
1816-1826 Henry Lyon Davis
1826-1834 John G. Blanchard
1834-1841 George McElhiney
1842-1844 Gordon Winslow
1844-1847 Hector Humphreys, officiating
1845-1847 Edwin M. VanDeusen
1847-1857 Cleland Klintoch Nelson
1857-1865 James Radcliffe Davenport
1865-1869 J. Pinkney Hammond
1869-1899 William Scott Southgate
1899-1917 James Patton McComas
1917-1943 Edward Darlington Johnson
1943-1956 Charles Edward Berger
1957-1973 James F. Madison
1974-1987 Richard V. Landis
1987-1989 Janice Gordon, Priest-in-Charge
1989-2006 John Randolph Price
2006-2007 Robert Wickizer, Priest-in-Charge
2007-2008 Gid Montjoy, Priest-in-Charge
2008- Amy Richter
Coat of Arms and Skylight Mural
In November 1989 the Vestry and Rector formally adopted a coat of arms for St. Anne’s designed by the Rev. Canon A. Pierce Middleton symbolizing its founding and early history. Research for the coat of arms was also done by Dr. Weems McFadden. The art work was by Ms. Joey Stone.
A special service was held the first Sunday in Advent of 1989 to dedicate the mural which covers the skylight room in the Parish House. Canon Middleton and the Rector participated in the service, Bishop Charles Longest was in attendance. The mural depicts the three St. Anne’s churches erected on Church Circle. The art work was done by Annapolis artist and St. Anne’s parishioner Jenifer Heyd Warton.
The Reverend Henry Lyon Davis – Rector 1816-1826
Considering an invitation to become Rector of St. Anne’s, the Reverend Henry Lyon Davis, visited Annapolis in the summer of 1815. Alarmed, he wrote the Bishop, “Let me again entreat you to go to Annapolis as soon as possible. The Methodists are devouring the poor flock in that place without mercy.” Although he became Rector in 1816, Mr. Davis remained pessimistic about the prospects for the Episcopal Church in Annapolis. Writing a colleague January 1, 1817, he observed, “I rejoice that you have the prospect of being very useful to the church in Washington County. In this heedless & frolicksome place, I have much greater cause for grief & fear, than hope & rejoicing.” Mr. Davis’ initial gloom was amply justified. In the year he became Rector, the Parish reported just 37 communicants (adult males eligible to vote in Vestry elections). However, whether inspired by the Holy Spirit or by the Methodists’ success, Mr. Davis’ rectorship revived the fortunes of St. Anne’s. The proceedings of the 1820 Diocesan Convention reports, “The church in Annapolis is in good condition. The number of the congregation about 250. Here divine service is performed three times a week. The salary of the Rector, about $600, is derived principally by subscription.” Mr. Davis also had use of the rectory on Hanover Street. While Rector, Mr. Davis continued his long service on the diocesan Standing Committee and also served as a delegate to the General Convention. During his tenure here, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree from his alma mater, Dickinson College, where he had been a Professor of Latin and Greek at age 19. Like several other Rectors, he also served as principal (president) of St. John’s College. However, after a dispute with the college trustees he was dismissed, first as president, and then as a faculty member. The reason for the dismissal is variously attributed to politics or because he changed examination policy without consulting the trustees. His tumultuous association with the College ended with an unseemly squabble over whether he had taken the college telescope. After becoming Rector, Mr. Davis married Jane Winter. They had two children, Henry Winter, and Jane. A nephew, David Davis, lived with the family for a time, but was forced to leave when The Reverend Davis lost a bitter custody battle to David’s stepfather. David later practiced law, and was ultimately appointed as a justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Upon leaving Annapolis in 1826, Henry Lyon Davis became president of Wilmington (DE) College. He later returned to Anne Arundel County where he lived until his death in 1836. The Reverend Davis was a slave owner – the 1920 Census records four slaves. His son, Henry Winter Davis, who inherited the slaves, held strong anti-slavery views and freed them. Settling in Baltimore, Henry winter Davis practiced law and was elected to four terms in Congress. He became a Radical Republican, and a strong critic of what he considered President Lincoln’s lenient Reconstruction plans. Richard Israel
The Southgate Window
The first window on the left as you enter the nave of the church, depicting Christ quieting the wind and waves, was given as a memorial to William S. Southgate, rector from 1869 to 1899, by his children. The window, by the New York firm of Heinigke and Bowen, was unveiled on All Saints’ Day, November 1, 1903 – a date chosen because The Reverend and Mrs. Southgate were married on All Saints’ Day in 1858. John LaFarge and Louis Comfort Tiffany, both of whom held patents for types of opalescent glass, also later known as Tiffany glass, are the most famous turn-of-the- 20th-century American makers of stained glass, but Otto Heinigke was at the time, equally famous. Heinigke’s style of stained glass window making is unique as he was one of the first to combine the traditional European stained glass technique of painted pot metal glass with that of the contemporary opalescent glass. Heinigke’s colleague, Owen Bowen, worked with both LaFarge and Tiffany prior to the founding of Heinigke and Bowen in 1890. Bowen died in 1902, but the firm retained his name until Heinigke’s death in 1915, when it became Heinigke and Smith. Heinigke’s art glass windows filled the homes of the important members of New York Society: Whitney, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Gould, Morgan, Guggenheim, Marshall Field, and Carnegie all had windows designed by Otto Heinigke. Most of them did not have windows by Tiffany. Heinigke also designed windows for the New York Stock Exchange, the New York Yacht Club, the Library of Congress, and Carnegie Hall. There are significant Heinigke windows in the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York, in St Johns Lafayette Square in Washington, and in numerous churches, universities and public spaces in the East and Midwest.